Nine mainstream primary teachers from one LEA in the North East of England (six with past and three with present experience of pupils with Down syndrome) took part in a study which aimed to identify those factors which may influence the outcome of full integration. Teacher knowledge, attitudes and expectations, levels of support and perceived needs were examined by means of semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire. A pilot information pack was developed on the basis of their perceived needs. Findings showed an increase in the number of children with Down syndrome integrated into mainstream primary schools, more pre-placement information regarding the child and higher levels of additional classroom staff than in the past. The main source of teacher knowledge was from background reading, the majority of teachers having received little or no input on SEN or Down syndrome during initial training or in-service apart from that offered by the Down Syndrome Association in two cases. While parental involvement was seen as an additional source of information by a few teachers, it was not generally either very frequent or highly valued. Teacher attitudes to integration and their expectations regarding the social and academic abilities of their pupils with Down syndrome varied considerably. This variation appears to be related not only to personal factors such as the perceived ability to meet the children's needs and degree of specialist knowledge, but also to external factors such as the degree of classroom support, information/resources and professional guidance available. All teachers who took part in the study were unanimous in the need to improve integration.