Differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's disease and hypothyroidism in adults with Down syndrome
The differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's disease and hypothyroidism in adults with Down syndrome who begin to show clinical deterioration needs to be emphasized. This study investigated clinical features which could be used to differentiate between the two conditions. Memory loss, mood and personality change, speech and gait deterioration, and slowing down were significantly associated with dementia but not with hypothyroidism. It is recommended that specific questions should be asked to elicit the presence of these features particularly in those individuals in whom assessment of biochemical thyroid status is not possible.
Prasher, V. (1995) Differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's disease and hypothyroidism in adults with Down syndrome. Down Syndrome Research and Practice, 3(1), 15-18. doi:10.3104/reports.46
An association between Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome (Oliver & Holland, 1986; Prasher & Krishnan, 1993) and between thyroid dysfunction and Down syndrome (Dinani & Carpenter, 1990; Prasher, 1994) have been well established. Both Alzheimer's disease and thyroid dysfunction occur more commonly in older individuals with Down syndrome and both disorders can present with decline in cognitive skills, physical deterioration and loss of adaptive skills. Differentiation between the two disorders can, therefore, be difficult.
Although assessment for biochemical thyroid status should be undertaken in all individuals who present with clinical deterioration, performing blood tests in people with Down syndrome, especially in older individuals, can at times be difficult (Prasher, 1994). It is, therefore, important to establish whether hypothyroidism can be differentiated from changes indicative of dementia on clinical grounds alone. Although studies have reported clinical changes of Alzheimer's disease in adults with Down syndrome (Oliver and Holland, 1986), and other studies have reported thyroid dysfunction changes in people with Down syndrome (Mani, 1988, Prasher, 1995), no study to date has investigated the clinical differentiation between Alzheimer's disease and hypothyroidism in people with Down syndrome. This study reports findings for 74 subjects.
As part of the West Midlands Ageing Study individuals with Down syndrome were being investigated for thyroid dysfunction and changes of Alzheimer's disease. This study had a large sample size, a wide age range (16-75 years) and institutionalised and community residents. The sample was relatively representative of adults with Down syndrome in the region. All individuals were, where possible, assessed cytogenetically to determine the presence of Down syndrome.
For the study reported here a number of individuals with biochemical hypothyroidism and mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease according to DCR-10 criteria (WHO,1993) were identified. To exclude effects of institutionalisation only community residents were investigated. Persons with no evidence of hypothyroidism, dementia or any other significant psychiatric disorder were used as controls.
Subjects in all three groups were assessed for a number of symptoms and signs used to diagnose clinical hypothyroidism (Mani, 1988) and symptoms and signs used to diagnose dementia (Evenhuis, 1990). Primary carers were interviewed and individuals examined to elicit presence of such symptoms and signs.
Biochemical hypothyroidism was diagnosed when free thyroxine values were below 12 pmol/l (normal range 12-26 pmol/l) and thyroid stimulating hormone levels were over 4.0 microIU/ml (normal range 0.3-4.0 microIU/ml). For the dementia group, only individuals with mild or moderate dementia according to ICD-10 criteria (WHO, 1992) were used as a comparative group. People with severe Alzheimer's disease were not assessed as differentiation of severe dementia from hypothyroidism should not be difficult.
Further to the checklist of symptoms, comparison of adaptive function was also undertaken. The Adaptive Behaviour Scale (ABS) (Nihira, 1974) was used. This is a widely used and well established instrument for assessment of adaptive function. Domain and total scores for Part I and Part II were used. Part I assessed independent functioning and Part II maladaptive behaviors. Domain 14 of Part I `use of medication' was excluded. Comparative analysis for the three groups was undertaken.
Seventy-three individuals were assessed. Demographic details are given in Table 1. The dementia group was found to be significantly older. The mean thyroxine level for the hypothyroid group was 8.58 (SD 2.74) with a mean thyroid stimulating hormone value of 28.58 (SD 33.67).
|Age||Mean (SD)||50.9 years (6.9)||42.9 years (13.2)||38.9 years (9.1)||Dementia group sig older (ANOVA p<0.5)|
|Range||39-72 years||25-62 years||20-62 years|
|Sex||Male||47%||42%||57%||No sig difference at 5% level|
|Residence||Family Home||47%||67%||52%||No sig difference at 5% level|
|Mild||18%||25%||23%||No sig difference at 5% level|
|History of Hypothyroidism||4||1||4|
|SD = standard deviation. sig = significant.|
Findings for frequency of symptoms and signs are given in Table 2. Several features were found to occur in both dementia and hypothyroidism groups. However, memory loss, emotional change, slowing down, personality change, speech and gait deterioration were found to be statistically significantly associated with dementia but not with hypothyroidism. Increased dry skin and weight change were more frequent in the hypothyroid group but not at the 5% significant level.
|Memory loss||100||17||2||Z= 4.6 P<0.01|
|Personality change||53||17||2||Z=2.0 P<0.5|
|Mood change||76||25||2||Z= 2.7 P<0.01|
|Behavioural deterioration||29||8||4||Z= 1.4 NS|
|Slowing down||88||33||11||Z= 3.0 P<0.01|
|Speech deterioration||71||17||2||Z= 2.8 P<0.01|
|Gait deterioration||76||25||0||Z= 2.7 P<0.01|
|Onset urinary incontinence||35||17||0||Z= 1.1 NS|
|Onset seizures||30||17||0||Z= 0.1 NS|
|Increased muscle tone||24||17||0||Z= 0.4 NS|
|Hair loss||24||17||18||Z= 0.4 NS|
|Dry skin||47||58||34||Z= 0.7 NS|
|Reduced appetite||24||0||0||Z= 1.7 NS|
|Disturbed sleep pattern||30||8||2||Z= 1.4 NS|
|Weight change||2||8||2||Z= 0.3 NS|
|* = Non-parametric analysis. Mann-Whitney test. NS = Not significant.|
Both the dementia and hypothyroid groups scored significantly lower on Part I of the ABS than the control group (Table 3). The dementia group scored lower than the hypothyroid group for virtually all domains and total Part I scores but this was not statistically significant at the 5% level. Both groups scored higher on the Part II (maladaptive behaviors) than the control group, with the dementia group scoring the highest. No particular ABS domain could be used to differentiate dementia from hypothyroidism.
Group Mean (SD)
|Part I||Independent functioning||53.24 (19.53)||54.25 (21.61)||74.77 (12.48)|
|Physical development||16.24 (5.04)||15.92 (5.48)||20.25 (2.74)|
|Economic activity||1.35 (2.00)||1.83 (2.41)||3.80 (3.17)|
|Language development||12.47 (5.81)||14.50 (8.17)||18.98 (6.81)|
|Numbers and time||2.47 (2.60)||3.08 (3.82)||4.77 (3.24)|
|Domestic activity||4.24 (4.51)||5.00 (5.34)||9.18 (4.18)|
|Vocational activity||1.29 (2.89)||1.50 (3.53)||4.27 (4.76)|
|Self-direction||8.53 (3.73)||9.08 (3.99)||13.50 (4.31)|
|Responsibility||1.53 (1.55)||2.17 (1.85)||3.34 (1.83)|
|Socialization||11.82 (4.81)||14.67 (6.85)||17.70 (4.22)|
|Part I overall score||113.18 (41.42)||122.00 (52.41)||170.37 (37.93)|
|Part II||Violent and destructive behavior||5.53 (4.12)||2.17 (2.48)||0.61 (1.30)|
|Antisocial behavior||3.71 (9.90)||2.42 (2.71)||0.82 (1.45)|
|Rebellious behavior||5.35 (8.94)||0.67 (1.23)||0.57 (1.15)|
|Untrustworthy behavior||1.35 (3.84)||1.75 (2.83)||0.50 (1.28)|
|Withdrawal||5.65 (6.17)||2.58 (4.21)||1.64 (3.21)|
|Stereotyped behavior||0.82 (1.42)||0.58 (1.16)||0.30 (0.76)|
|Inappropriate interpersonal manners||0.82 (2.43)||0.42 (0.79)||0.27 (0.66)|
|Unacceptable vocal habits||1.35 (2.37)||0.67 (1.61)||0.27 (0.62)|
|Unacceptable or eccentric habits||2.47 (4.11)||0.83 (1.85)||1.23 (2.33)|
|Self-abusive behavior||0.35 (0.70)||0.25 (0.62)||0.23 (0.64)|
|Hyperactive tendencies||0.29 (0.85)||0.00 (0.00)||0.00 (0.00)|
|Sexually aberrant behavior||1.00 (2.67)||0.25 (0.62)||0.27 (0.90)|
|Psychological disturbances||4.29 (9.27)||1.92 (0.62)||1.30 (2.36)|
|Part II overall score||30.00 (44.90)||14.50 (10.77)||8.00 (9.86)|
|No statistically significant difference for domain and total scores between hypothyroid and dementia groups.|
This study demonstrates that there are clinical differences in the presentation of mild/moderate Alzheimer's disease and hypothyroidism in adults with Down syndrome. Deterioration in memory, changes in mood and personality, deterioration in speech and gait and bradykinesia are strong indicators of Alzheimer's disease rather than hypothyroidism. Ultimately, biochemical analysis for thyroid status would clarify the position, although such tests would be better supported and be more cost effective if there was greater suspicion on clinical grounds.
- Bradykinesia: Difficulty in initiating and executing movements.
- Cytogenerically: Related to genetic structure of the cell.
- Hypothyroidism: Subnormal activity of the thyroid gland.
- Thyroxine: Thyroid hormone.
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